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Three single leg standing tests for clinical assessment of chronic plantar heel pain syndrome: static stance, half-squat and heel rise

Abstract

Objective

To assess reliability and validity of three single leg standing clinical tests in patients with plantar heel pain syndrome (PHPS).

Design

Cross-sectional reliability study.

Participants

Forty patients diagnosed with PHPS.

Main outcome measures

Patients stood on their affected foot in a static stance for up to 30 seconds, a half squat for up to 10 repetitions, and a heel rise for up to 10 repetitions. The first sensation of pain (p1) determined the termination of each test, and established a positive test result. The level of p1 was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS); time or repetitions for each test were recorded. Prior to performing the tests, all patients completed the Foot & Ankle Computerized Adaptive Test to measure functional status (FS).

Results

Detection of p1 in each test showed good reliability for inter- and intrarater assessment (Kappa = 0.60 to 0.78 and 0.56 to 0.77, respectively). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the VAS measures was 0.85 to 0.95 for inter-rater assessment and 0.78 to 0.92 for intrarater assessment. However, the Bland and Altman limits of agreement were wide, indicating that these measures were less reliable than the correlation coefficients suggested. Thirty-five patients (88%) experienced a positive pain response to at least one test. Significant correlations were found between the VAS measures in each test and FS (r = 0.63 to 0.72).

Conclusions

The static stance, half squat and heel rise tests were easily implemented, and found to be reliable and valid according to one analysis, yet less reliable with another, for pain provocation and VAS levels in patients with PHPS. All three VAS levels correlated well with FS.

Cite this article

Three single leg standing tests for clinical assessment of chronic plantar heel pain syndrome: static stance, half-squat and heel rise.

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