Chair of council Helena Johnson (right) made the announcement, saying the government had failed to take its last chance to make the radical changes needed to the controversial legislation.
The government has been criticised for failing to allay fears over an increased role for private companies in the NHS.
Final government amendments to the bill were announced this week, with health secretary Andrew Lansley saying the government had been 'carefully listening' to concerns, and the amendments would 'address these remaining issues'.
But CSP said the changes had failed to do this.
Dr Johnson said: 'Together with many other health professionals, we have tried to engage constructively and make sensible suggestions throughout the bill's passage through parliament.
'But time and time again, the views of patients and health professionals have been ignored. The government seems determined to press ahead with these reforms.
'The bill - even with these latest government amendments - threatens the very future of the health service and will significantly damage the quality of patient care.
'So today we have written to the prime minister and health secretary asking them, for the sake of the NHS patients, to withdraw this fundamentally flawed legislation.'
The British Medical Association, Royal College of General Practitioners, Royal College of Nursing and the Royal College of Midwives have all already called for the bill to be withdrawn.
Meanwhile, the TUC-led coalition of unions 'All together for the NHS', including the CSP, is planning a 'Save our NHS' rally at Central Hall, Westminster, on 7 March.
The evening rally is aimed at demonstrating the continued broad opposition to the Health and Social Care Bill. More details will be published when they are confirmed.
Also see our press release: Chartered Society of Physiotherapy calls on government to withdraw NHS plans